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By Pelin Ayan Musil (auth.)

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Yet, the final one, the BDP, is currently represented in the parliament. Nationalist Action Party (Nationalist Work Party until 1993) (MHP) Justice and Development Party (AKP) HEP (1990–1991) DEP (1991–1994) HADEP (1994–2003) DEHAP (2003–2005) DTP (2005–2009) BDP (2008– . . )* Republican People’s Party (CHP) 38 AUTHORITARIAN PARTY STRUCTURES he supported after he left had the highest chance to acquire the party leadership; in intraparty elections, Yılmaz, who served as a minister in Özal’s government, successfully challenged Akbulut, who previously had the secondary role in the party as he was one of Özal’s loyalists.

Members of the same ideological family may resemble each other organizationally because of the structural conditions that affect their formation. The most prominent example for the relationship between ideology and organizational structure is found in Duverger’s famous “contagion from the left” thesis. 67 In the light of these discussions, it is possible to see that the role of party ideology, as an explanation for internal party democracy or authoritarianism, treats the power structure of parties as something static and uniform, assuming that once the specific power structure is constructed upon the organizational goals, it remains still and homogeneous.

51 Therefore, in Eastern and South European democracies, political parties emerged as weakly institutionalized entities, comprising of weak links with the society and low level of organizational loyalty among politicians. 52 The elite-driven nature of democratic transitions particularly led to the formation of top-down, centralized party organizations. 54 Therefore, they create a new typology of parties inclusive of the cases drawn from third-wave democracies. The main distinction within this typology is based on the “organizationally thick” and “organizationally thin” parties.

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