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By Nora Berend

This can be a examine of the industrial, social, criminal and spiritual place of 3 minorities in the medieval Christian country of Hungary. The e-book demonstrates that the prestige of such minorities depended now not easily on Christian spiritual tenets, yet on a bigger framework--including the criminal and social approach, fiscal chances, and conflicts among kings and the clergy. It additionally investigates the location "at the gate of Christendom"--the frontier with the nomad world--and the best way this affected either Christian and non-Christian interplay and Christian ideology.

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23 The second one in 1971 resulted from ideological differences among officers and from civilian intrigues and was anamolous from the start. The cabinet resigned but the legislature was retained in the hope that the military would dictate but not enforce government policies. Its failure wounded the military’s prestige. The intervention of 1980, on the other hand, aimed to save the state and the Republic and to reform the political system by making the army its guardian, through the National Security Council formally headed by the President and enshrined in the Constitution of 1982.

3. 7 8    , ‒ 41 industry’s share climbed up from 16 to 23 per cent. 8 million dollars in 1961. Recent studies indicate that the real national income of Turkey, after approximately a 6 per cent increase in 1950–53, slowed down to about 3 per cent annually until 1961, and resumed growth afterwards. 10 Nevertheless, the economic activity in the rural areas, spurred by intensified communication through an excellent road programme, water projects and a variety of other works, and further enhanced through the abolition of controls and intense political activity left their impact on the peasantry.

9 Orhan Türkay, Türkiye’de Nüfus Artı{ı ve (ktisadi Geli{me, Ankara, 1962, p. 8; also Economic Developments in the Middle East (United Nations Report) New York 1955–62; (statistik Yıllı<ı 1963, Ankara, 1963, p. 42; 1965 Genel Nüfus Sayımı, Ankara, 1965, p. 3. 7 8    , ‒ 41 industry’s share climbed up from 16 to 23 per cent. 8 million dollars in 1961. Recent studies indicate that the real national income of Turkey, after approximately a 6 per cent increase in 1950–53, slowed down to about 3 per cent annually until 1961, and resumed growth afterwards.

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