Download Aquatic chemistry : chemical equilibria and rates in natural by Werner Stumm PDF

By Werner Stumm

"Like the former variants, this considerably revised and up to date 3rd version has been written to supply readers with an exceptional realizing of the overall chemical ideas underlying usual water chemistry: chemical thermodynamics and kinetics, acids and bases, dissolved carbon dioxide, atmosphere-water interactions, steel ions in aqueous options, precipitation and dissolution, oxidation and reduction, Read more...


this can be a whole creation to the recommendations, functions and strategies of aquatic chemistry. it's been revised and up to date to concentration upon pollutants and its regulate, in addition to the processes Read more...

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Extra info for Aquatic chemistry : chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters

Example text

At equilibrium all are zero. 2), the quantities S and V refer to the total system, that is, 5 tola,system and |/ tota,system . For a heterogeneous system, the term describing change in composition in equation (37) needs to be modified to account for both chemical reaction and transfer between phases. For example, carbon dioxide, C0 2 (g), dissolves in water and the dissolved form, C0 2 (aq) reacts with water to produce additional species, that is, H 2 C0 3 (aq), HCO^, and CC>3~ [and thereby to alter H + (aq) and O H ( a q ) ) .

Many nonionizable organic solutes in water are described thermodynamically on the mole fraction scale, although their solubilities may commonly be reported in practical units, for example, molality. [Refer to Schwarzenbach et al. ] Here, the standard state is the pure liquid state of the organic solute, that is, jCj; = 1. The reference state is x( -+ 1, that is, a solution in which the organic solute molecules interact with one another entirely. Activity coefficients of solute molecules in dilute aqueous solutions are generally much greater than unity for this reference state choice, JC,- -* 1.

Where high pressures are involved, the fugacity is used instead of the partial pressure. , T). , equation 53), /*, = /x,° 4- RT In JC, 7,, with, for example, 7, -» 1 as xt■, -* 1 as a possible reference state. Here, as for organic solutes in water, the activity coefficients must be interpreted in light of the reference state chosen. In summary, thermodynamic models of natural water systems require manipulation of chemical potential expressions in which three concentration scales may be involved: mole fractions, partial pressures, and molalities.

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