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By C. Spielberge

-from library through writer Beeman N. Phillips, professor emeritus, college of Texas with identify stamp on finish paper and contribution annotated.

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Zuckerman and his colleagues (Zuckerman, 1960; Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965; Zuckerman, Lubin, Vogel, & Valerius, 1964) developed the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List ( M A A C L ) for the assessment of affective states. The M A A C L differs from the adjective rating-scales developed by Nowlis and Green in at least two important respects. First, the subject is required to check only those items that describe how he feels, rather than to indicate the intensity of specific feelings. Second, the adjectives that define the three affective 2 A paper by Nowlis (1961) provides one of the best general introductions to the methods and problems associated with the measurement of affective states.

In developing the STAI, it was assumed that items with a demonstrated relationship to other measures of anxiety would be most useful in an inventory designed to measure both Α-State and Α-Trait. Since most anxiety scales measure trait anxiety (Spielberger, 1966a), a large number of items embodying content of proven relationship to the most widely used Α-Trait scales were rewritten so that each item could be administered with different instructions to measure either Α-State or Α-Trait. It was discovered, however, that the psycholinguistic properties of some of the items or, more precisely, the 36 Charles D.

Thus, where stress refers to the objective stimulus properties of a situation, threat refers to an individual's idiosyncratic perception of a particular situation as physically or psychologically dangerous. The appraisal of a situation as dangerous or threatening will be determined, in part, by an individual's personality dispositions and past experience with similar situations. The term, anxiety, or more specifically, state anxiety (Α-State), will be used to refer to the complex emotional reactions that are evoked in individuals who interpret specific situations as personally threatening.

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