By Kristin Hagen, Margret Engelhard, Georg Toepfer
"Synthetic biology" is the label of a brand new technoscientific box with many various elements and agendas. One universal objective is to "create life", essentially by utilizing engineering ideas to layout and regulate organic platforms for human use. In a much wider context, the subject has turn into one of many colossal instances within the legitimization tactics linked to the political schedule to resolve international issues of assistance from (bio-)technological innovation. Conceptual-level and meta-level analyses are wanted: we should always deal with conceptual ambiguities to agree on what we discuss, and we have to spell out agendas to work out the disagreements clearly.
The ebook relies at the interdisciplinary summer season tuition "Analyzing the societal dimensions of man-made biology", which came about in Berlin in September 2014.
The contributions handle debatable discussions round the philosophical exam, public conception, ethical overview and governance of man-made biology.
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Extra info for Ambivalences of Creating Life: Societal and Philosophical Dimensions of Synthetic Biology
2 33 Biosecurity: Beyond Asilomar Whereas biosafety deals with the inherent capability of organisms or viruses to cause disease, biosecurity is mainly concerned with their misuse as biological weapons for bioterrorism. Bioterrorism is nothing new: the intentional release of pathogenic toxins, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and insects is a mode of biological warfare against humans and animals that many countries have used in the past. For example, during World War I, a German secret agent travelled to the USA to infect horses with glanders, a severe infectious disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei, which provokes respiratory ulcers, septicemia and death in horses, donkeys and mules.
2013) or “never-born proteins” (Chiarabelli et al. 2012), as well as at imitating cellular processes (Forlin et al. 2012) such as cellular division (Schwille 2011) and growth (Blain and Szostak 2014). Although no longer considered synthetic biology research by the current EU deﬁnition given above (Breitling et al. 2015), this research, mostly fundamental, deserves proper recognition as synthetic biology research because it has potential impact on other synthetic biology areas such as metabolic engineering by the in vitro optimization of synthetic pathways.
Coli (brown; 1, 7, 8), S. cerevisiae (orange; 2–6) and A. annua (green; 9–11) allows the conversion of acetyl-CoA via the mevalonate pathway into artemisic acid, which can be thereafter chemically converted to artemisinin. Enzymes: 1 AtoB, acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase; 2 HMGS, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase; 3 tHMGR, truncated HMG-CoA reductase; 4 MK, mevalonate kinase; 5 PMK, phosphomevalonate kinase; 6 MPD, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase; 7 idi, isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase; 8 ispA, Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase; 9 ADS, amorpha-4,11-diene synthase; 10 CPR, cytochrome p450 redox partner; and 11 P450, monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) (Color ﬁgure online) to start a 3-day-culture production of artemisic acid, a precursor that can be chemically oxidized by standard procedures to artemisinin (Ro et al.