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INGRAHAM and VISSCHER (1936 b) found that the specific uptake was abolished by application of a variety of metabolic poisons, including fluoride, hydrogen sulfide. Hg++, and cyanide. Regardless of the direction of the net transfers occurring at any particular time, there is considerable reciprocal ionic exchange between the intestinal contents and the bloodstream, as shown by VISSCHER et al. (1944), with D 2 0, Na 2 \ and Cl3S, in Thiry-Vella loops in the dog. The total gut Na+ exchange can amount to about Y.

Recalculated to standard injection of 10' counts/min. per 100 ml. of blood. (Courtesy of D. R. H. GOURLEY and II rchives of Biochemistry) and ALTMAN (1954), using paper chromatographic methods to separate and identify the various organic phosphates, threw doubt on GOURLEY'S finding of a special precursor role for ATP. Their data point clearly to the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate as the component quickest to take up the p32 label. However, recent unpublished observations with resin column separation techniques seem to support GOURLEY'S original cruder experiments, and the interpretation of the discordant evidence has not been clearly settled.

He argues that CONWAY'S (1951) "redox pump," as the basis for this Na+ transport, provides the most complete interpretation of the experimental facts. LINDERHOLM also noted that, although perhaps only 5% of the energy of the skin's respiration is required for the Na+ pump, the Na+ marge transfer is 70--90% of the electron transfer involved on the basis of CONWAY'S hypothesis; thus the "coulomb efficiency" appears to be very high indeed. 17 The active pituitary principle appeared to follow the oxytocic factors rather than the antidiuretic and pressor factors (FUHRMAN and USSING 1951).

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