By Steven N. Dworkin
This background of the Spanish lexicon is written from the interacting views of linguistic and cultural switch and within the mild of advances within the examine of language touch and lexical switch. the writer describes the language inherited from spoken Latin within the Iberian Peninsula in the course of six centuries of Roman profession and examines the measure to which it imported phrases from the languages - of which merely Basque survives - of pre-Roman Spain. He then indicates how Germanic phrases have been imported both ultimately via Latin or previous French or without delay by means of touch with the Visigoths. He describes the importation of Arabisms following the eighth-century Arab conquest of Spain, distinguishing these documented in medieval assets from these followed for daily use, a lot of which live to tell the tale in sleek Spanish. He considers the impact of previous French and outdated Provencal and identifies overdue direct and oblique borrowings from Latin, together with the Italian parts taken up through the Renaissance. After outlining minor impacts from languages resembling Flemish, Portuguese, and Catalan, Professor Dworkin examines the consequences at the lexicon of touch among Spanish and the indigenous languages of South and crucial the US, and the influence of touch with English. The e-book is geared toward complex scholars and students of Spanish linguistics and may curiosity experts in Hispanic literary and cultural reviews.
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Szemerényi (1963: 413) suggested considering the possibility that izquierdo and the related Portuguese, Catalan, and Basque forms reﬂect a conﬂation of the roots underlying Lat. SCAEVUS ‘left’ and SINISTER (with some degree of formal support from their polar opposite DEXTER). 22 In the medieval language this adjective was used as a pejorative nickname for the Portuguese. It is ﬁrst documented in the mid-fourteenth-century Poema de Alfonso Onceno as a substantivized adjective (“ﬁja fue de una chamorra/que salió mala cristiana”, ed.
The lack of cognates outside the Iberian Peninsula of cognates to Sp. /Ptg. caçurro), ‘gross, crude’, and chamorro ‘closecropped’22 as well as the concluding segment -urro/-orro may point to a pre-Roman origin for both adjectives. Three different hypotheses have sought to explain the genesis of Sp. terco ‘stubborn’. v. terco) linked terco to Cat. enterch 21 The Indo-Europeanist O. Szemerényi (1963: 413) suggested considering the possibility that izquierdo and the related Portuguese, Catalan, and Basque forms reﬂect a conﬂation of the roots underlying Lat.
From the outset it was incumbent upon the native population to learn at least enough Latin to be able to 22 A history of the Spanish lexicon communicate at a basic level on speciﬁc concrete issues with their new masters, who, nevertheless, did not impose the use of Latin by force. The speakers of the pre-Roman languages initiated the decision to abandon the use of their native tongues. 1 It is reasonable to assume that some Roman soldiers acquired a working knowledge of some of the local languages through extended contact with the native populations and marriage with local women.